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Wireless Networking References Section

dBm to mW Conversion

dBm

mW

dBm

mW

dBm

mW

-10.0 0.10 7 5 24 251
-9.0 0.13 8 6 25 316
-8.0 0.16 9 8 26 398
-7.0 0.20 10 10 27 501
-6.0 0.25 11 13 28 631
-5.0 0.32 12 16 29 794
-4.0 0.4 13 20 30 1000
-3.0 0.5 14 25 31 1259
-2.0 0.6 15 32 32 1585
-1.0 0.8 16 40 33 1995
0.0 1.0 17 50 34 2512
1.0 1.3 18 63 35 3162
2.0 1.6 19 79 36 3981
3.0 2.0 20 100 37 5012
4.0 2.5 21 126 38 6310
5.0 3.2 22 158 39 7943
6 4 23 200 40 10000

2.4GHz Channels & Bands

2.4GHz Operating Frequency Range = 2412 - 2484MHz

Legal Operating Channels by Region:

  • OFCOM/ETSI: 01 - 13
  • FCC: 01 - 11
  • France: 10 - 13
  • Japan: 01 - 14

2.4GHz Channel

Frequency (MHz)

2.4GHz Channel

Frequency (MHz)

1 2412 8 2447
2 2417 9 2452
3 2422 10 2457
4 2427 11 2462
5 2432 12 2467
6 2437 13 2472
7 2442 14 2484

Country

Maximum E.I.R.P (dBm)

Maximum E.I.R.P (mW)

Regulatory Body

Regulatory Document

Europe 20 100 ETSI ETS 300-328
USA 30 1000 FCC 47 CFR 15.247
Japan 10 10 ARIB STD-T66
France 7 5 ARCEP -

5GHz Channels & Bands

5GHz Operating Frequency Range = 4915 - 5825MHz

Legal Unlicensed Operating Channels by Region (Channel 36+):

5GHz Channel

Frequency (MHz)

United States

Europe

Japan

Singapore

Israel

Korea

Australia

40/20 MHz 40/20 MHz 40/20 MHz 20 MHz 20 MHz 20 MHz 40/20 MHz
36 5180 Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
38 5190 No No No No Yes Yes No
40 5200 Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
42 5210 No No No No Yes Yes No
44 5220 Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
46 5230 No No No No Yes Yes No
48 5240 Yes Yes Yes No Yes Yes Yes
52 5260 Yes Yes Yes No Yes Yes Yes
56 5280 Yes Yes Yes No Yes Yes Yes
60 5300 Yes Yes Yes No Yes Yes Yes
64 5320 Yes Yes Yes No Yes Yes Yes
100 5500 Yes Yes Yes No No Yes Yes
104 5520 Yes Yes Yes No No Yes Yes
108 5540 Yes Yes Yes No No Yes Yes
112 5560 Yes Yes Yes No No Yes Yes
116 5580 Yes Yes Yes No No Yes Yes
120 5600 No Yes Yes No No Yes No
124 5620 No Yes Yes No No Yes No
128 5640 No Yes Yes No No Yes No
132 5660 No Yes Yes No No No Yes
136 5680 Yes Yes Yes No No No Yes
140 5700 Yes Yes Yes No No No Yes
149 5745 Yes No No Yes No Yes Yes
153 5765 Yes No No Yes No Yes Yes
157 5785 Yes No No Yes No Yes Yes
161 5805 Yes No No Yes No Yes Yes
165 5825 Yes No No Yes No Yes Yes

Maximum Output Power / E.I.R.P - 5GHz UK OFCOM

  • A Band (Channels 36 - 64): 0.2W or 23dBm - License Free Operation
  • B Band (Channels 100 - 140): 1W or 30dBm - License Free Operation
  • C Band (Channels 149 - 161): 4W or 36dBm - License Required

802.11 Networking Standards

802.11 Protocol Comparison Table

802.11 Protocol

Release

Frequency

Channel Bandwidth

Data rate per stream (Mbps)

Allowable MIMO streams

Modulation

Approximate indoor range (m)

Approximate outdoor range (m)

- Jun-97 2.4 20 Up to 2 1 DSSS,FHSS 20 100
a Sep-99 5 20 Up to 54 1 OFDM 35 120
b Sep-99 2.4 20 Up to 11 1 DSSS 38 140
g Jun-03 2.4 20 Up to 54 1 OFDM,DSSS 38 140
n Oct-09 2.4/5 20 Up to 72.2 4 OFDM 70 250
40 Up to 150 70 250

802.11 Advertised Vs Actual Throughputs

802.11 Protocol

Advertised Speed (Mbps)

Real World Throughput Speed (Mbps)

802.11a 54 ≈ 27.5
802.11b 11 ≈ 4.5
802.11g (11b compatibility on) 54 ≈ 14.5
802.11g 54 ≈ 23
802.11g MIMO 108 ≈ 45
802.11n 300 ≈ 74
802.11n 600 ≈ 144

Millimetre Wave

Millimetre Wave Band

Application

Regulatory Document

57 - 64GHz Unlicensed Point-to-Point Fixed Wireless Systems IR 2078
64 - 66GHz Licensed Point-to-Point Fixed Wireless Systems Self-Coordinated
71 - 76GHz Licensed Point-to-Point Fixed Wireless Systems Self-Coordinated
81 - 86GHz Licensed Point-to-Point Fixed Wireless Systems Self-Coordinated

3G Standards

Common name of IMT-2000 standard

Bandwidth

Pre-4G upgrade

Duplex Method

Channel

Description

Geographical Areas of Usage

EDGE (UWC-136) EDGE Evolution Likely Discontinued FDD TDMA Evolutionary upgrade to GSM/GPRS Worldwide, except Japan & South Korea
CDMA2000 EV-DO UMB CDMA Evolutionary upgrade to CDMA One (IS-95) Americas, Asia & some others
UMTS W-CDMA HSPA LTE Family of revolutionary upgrades to earlier GSM family Worldwide
TD-CDMA TDD Europe
TD-SCDMA China
DECT none FDMA/TDMA Short-range, standard for cordless phones Europe & USA
WiMAX (IEEE 802.16) OFDMA Worldwide

3G Channels and Licenses

Licence Name

Frequencies

License Owner

Licence A 2x15 MHz paired + 5 MHz unpaired spectrum 3
Licence B 2x15 MHz paired spectrum Vodafone
Licence C 2x10 MHz paired + 5 MHz unpaired spectrum BT (O2)
Licence D 2x10 MHz paired + 5 MHz unpaired spectrum T-Mobile
Licence E 2x10 MHz paired + 5 MHz unpaired spectrum Orange

3G Spectrum

4G Standards

Comparison table listing the current and proposed 4G systems along with other related systems:

Standard

Family

Primary Use

Radio Tech

Downlink (Mbps)

Uplink (Mbps)

Notes

WiMAX 802.16 Mobile Internet MIMO-SOFDMA 128 (20MHz b'width) 56 (20MHz b'width) WiMAX update IEEE 802.16m expected to offer peak rates of at least 1 Gbps fixed speeds and 100Mbps to mobile users.
LTE UMTS / 4GSM General 4G OFDMA / MIMO / SC-FDMA 100 (20MHz b'width) 50 (20 MHz b'width) LTE-Advanced update expected to offer peak rates up to 1 Gbps fixed speeds and 100 Mbps to mobile users.
Flash-OFDM Flash-OFDM Mobile Internet mobility up to 200mph Flash-OFDM 0.3 1.8 Mobile range 30km (18 miles) and Extended range 55 km (34 miles)
10.6 3.6
15.9 5.4
HIPERMAN HIPERMAN Mobile Internet OFDM 56.9
Wi-Fi 802.11 (11n) Mobile Internet OFDM / MIMO 300 (using 4x4 configuration in 20MHz bandwidth) or 600 (using 4x4 configuration in 40MHz bandwidth) Antenna, RF front end enhancements and minor protocol timer tweaks have helped deploy long range P2P networks compromising on radial coverage, throughput and/or spectra efficiency (310km & 382km)
iBurst 802.2 Mobile Internet HC-SDMA / TDD / MIMO 95 36 Speed: 250km/h, Spectral Efficiency: 13 bits/s/Hz/cell, Spectrum Reuse Factor: "1", Cell Radius: 3-12 km
EDGE Evolution GSM Mobile Internet TDMA / FDD 1.6 0.5 3GPP Release 7
UMTS W-CDMA UMTS/3GSM General 3G CDMA / FDD 0.384 0.384 HSDPA widely deployed. Typical downlink rates today 2 Mbps, ≈200 kbps uplink; HSPA+ downlink up to 56 Mbps.
HSDPA + HSUPA 14.4 5.76
HSPA+ CDMA / FDD / MIMO 56 22
UMTS-TDD UMTS / 3GSM Mobile Internet CDMA / TDD 16 Reported speeds according to IP Wireless using 16QAM modulation similar to HSDPA + HSUPA
1xRTT CDMA2000 Mobile phone CDMA 0.144 Succeeded by EV-DO for data use, but still is used for voice and as a failover for EV-DO
EV-DO 1x Rev. 0 CDMA2000 Mobile Internet CDMA/FDD 2.45 0.15 Rev B note: N is the number of 1.25 MHz chunks of spectrum used. EV-DO is not designed for voice, and requires a fallback to 1xRTT when a voice call is placed or received.
EV-DO 1x Rev.A 3.1 1.8
EV-DO Rev.B 4.9xN 1.8xN

Licensing Documents

Fixed Wireless Systems - General

2.4GHz Wireless Systems

5GHz Wireless Systems

57 - 63GHz Fixed Wireless Systems

64 - 66GHz Fixed Wireless Systems

71 - 75GHz & 81 - 85GHz Fixed Wireless Systems

3G Mobile Broadband Systems

Rain Fade

Rainfall Rate (R)

Percentage of Year (%)

Region

A B B1 B2 C D1 D2 D3 E F G H
(mm/hr) (mm/hr) (mm/hr) (mm/hr) (mm/hr) (mm/hr) (mm/hr) (mm/hr) (mm/hr) (mm/hr) (mm/hr) (mm/hr)
1 0.2 1.2 0.8 1.4 1.8 2.2 3.0 4.6 7.0 0.6 8.4 12.4
0.5 0.5 2.0 1.5 2.4 2.9 3.8 5.3 8.2 12.6 1.4 13.2 22.6
0.1 2.5 5.7 4.5 6.8 7.7 10.3 15.1 22.4 36.2 5.3 31.3 66.5
0.05 4.0 8.6 6.8 10.3 11.5 15.3 22.2 31.6 50.4 8.5 43.8 97.2
0.01 9.9 21.1 16.1 25.8 29.5 36.2 46.8 61.6 91.5 22.2 90.2 209.3
0.005 13.8 29.2 22.3 35.7 41.4 49.2 62.1 78.7 112.0 31.9 118.0 283.4
0.001 28.1 52.1 42.6 63.8 71.6 86.6 114.1 133.2 176.0 70.7 197.0 542.6

Frequency (GHz)

kH

kV

αH

αV

30 0.187 0.167 1.02 1.00
40 0.350 0.310 0.94 0.93
50 0.536 0.479 0.87 0.87
60 0.707 0.642 0.83 0.82
70 0.851 0.784 0.79 0.79
80 0.975 0.906 0.77 0.77
90 1.060 0.999 0.75 0.75
100 1.120 1.060 0.74 0.74

Availability

Availability %

Downtime p/year

Downtime p/month

Downtime p/week

90 ("1 nine") 36.5 days 72 hours 16.8 hours
95 18.25 days 36 hours 8.4 hours
97 10.96 days 21.6 hours 5.04 hours
98 7.30 days 14.4 hours 3.36 hours
99 ("2 nines") 3.65 days 7.20 hours 1.68 hours
99.5 1.83 days 3.60 hours 50.4 minutes
99.8 17.52 hours 86.23 minutes 20.16 minutes
99.9 ("3 nines") 8.76 hours 43.2 minutes 10.1 minutes
99.95 4.38 hours 21.56 minutes 5.04 minutes
99.99 ("4 nines") 52.56 minutes 4.32 minutes 1.01 minutes
99.999 ("5 nines") 5.26 minutes 25.9 seconds 6.05 seconds
99.9999 ("6 nines") 31.5 seconds 2.59 seconds 0.605 seconds

Earth Curvature

Link Distance (km)

Curvature Allowance (m)

1 Negligible
2 Negligible
3 0.2
5 0.4
10 1.5
15 4
20 6
25 10
30 13
35 18
40 24

Wireless Networking Technical Equations

dBm to mW Conversion

Where,

  • PmW = Signal Strength/Power (mW)
  • PdBm = Signal Strength/Power (dBm)

Signal Attenuation over Distance

Where,

  • Strength = Signal Strength (dBm)
  • Distance = Link Distance (consistent units)

Wavelength-Frequency Equation

Where,

  • λ = Signal Wavelength (m)
  • f = Frequency (s)
  • c = Speed of Light (3x108ms-1)

Fresnel Zone Radius

Where,

  • Fn = The nth Fresnel Zone Radius (m)
  • n = The Fresnel Zone number in question
  • λ = Signal Wavelength (m)
  • d1 = Distance from 1st Device to Point along path (m)
  • d2 = Distance from 2nd Device to Point along path (m)

1st Fresnel Zone Radius

Where,

  • r = 1st Fresnel Zone Radius (m)
  • D = Total Link Distance (km)
  • f = Signal Frequency (GHz)

Earth Curvature

Where,

  • H = Height difference of Earth's Curvature at the mid-point between the two devices (m)
  • D = Total Link Distance between the two devices (km)
  • Er = Effective Radius of Earth (km) Note: Usually taken as 4/3 actual radius to account for atmospheric refraction i.e. 8,504km

Free Space Loss - Method 1

Where,

  • FSL = Free-Space Loss
  • λ = Signal's wavelength (m)
  • d = Distance between transmitter and receiver (m)

Free Space Loss - Method 2

Where,

  • FSL(dB) = Free-Space Loss (dB)
  • d = Distance between transmitter and receiver (km)
  • f = Signal's frequency (GHz)

Link Budget

Where,

  • PRX = Received Power (dBm)
  • PTX = Transmitter Power Output (dBm)
  • GTX = Transmitter Antenna Gain (dBi)
  • LTX = Losses from Transmitter (cable, connectors etc.) (dB)
  • LFS = Path Loss (dB)
  • LM = Misc. Losses (fade margin, polarization misalignment etc.) (dB)
  • GRX = Receiver Antenna Gain (dBi)
  • LRX = Losses from Receiver (cable, connectors etc.) (dB)

System Operating Margin

Where,

  • SOM = System Operating Margin (dBm)
  • PRX = Received Power (dBm)
  • SRX = Receiver Sensitivity (dBm)

Rain Fade

Where,

  • LRAIN = Loss in signal strength due to rain (dB)
  • γR = Specific attenuation factor due to rain (dB/km)
  • DRAIN = Network path length (km)

Specific Attenuation Factor

Where,

  • k and α = Various frequency coefficients
  • R = Rainfall rate depending on availability required in specific region